In teaching elementary mathematics, some schools have shifted from focusing on rote memorization of single-digit arithmetic to emphasizing deeper conceptual understanding of the underlying processes. However, research shows that students still need to have fluency with their basic number facts if they are to be successful with higher level mathematics. Fluency and automaticity are particularly important for students with weaker abstract reasoning and working memory skills.

*Best-suited for students with weaker: Inhibition, Long-term Memory, Short-Term Memory, Visual Processing, Processing Speed (Source: Digital Promise Learner Variability Project)*